How Much Do You Know About Alexandria (Ancient Alexandria, Library of Alexandria, Lighthouse of Alexandria, Christianity in Alexandria)
1) Alexandria is Egypt’s second largest city in Africa, with a population of 4.1 million. It’s also the country’s largest seaport and its cultural center. What sea lies adjacent to Alexandria?
Answer: Mediterranean Sea
2) In Egypt, in the 2nd century AD, the first Christian institution of higher learning was founded. What was its name?
Answer: School of Alexandria
3) The Serapaeum and the Temple of Poseidon were both found on the western part of Alexandria. To which gods were the buildings dedicated to?
Answer: One temple is dedicated to God Serapis, and one is dedicated to Poseidon.
4) Which year was Alexandria founded?
Answer: 331 BC
5) What was the name of the mausoleum in Alexandria, Egypt, belonging to Alexander and the Ptolemies?
Answer: Soma or Sema
6) Which marauders conquered Alexandria in 616 AD?
Answer: Persians and the Avars.
7) Turning Alexandria into the greatest port in the world was one of Alexander’s dreams. He constructed a seven-furlong breakwater out into the sea. What is its name?
8) Name one museum in which you can see an extensive collection of Greek and Roman antiquities founded in 1892
Answer: Alexandria Municipal Museum
9) Which military leader founded Alexandria?
Answer: Alexander the Great
10) The last and most famous of the Ptolemies died in 30 BC. Her name was …?
11) The breakwater extended as far as an isle, on which was built a lighthouse. It became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. What was it called?
12) In 642, it fell again to long-term conquerors. Name them.
Answer: The Arabs
13) In the 15th century, which historic structure was built on the site of the Pharos lighthouse?
Answer: Citadel of Qaitbay
14) In which dynasty did Alexandria become the literary and scientific centre of the world under a Macedonian general and his descendants?
Answer: The Ptolemies
Alexandria is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. and is the second largest city in Egypt.
In the ancient times, Alexandria was known as “Ptolemais” and was renowned for its history, culture, wealth and education. Alexandria’s cultural importance remains today.
Many of Alexander’s original buildings can still be seen in the city such as the great Library of Alexandria, a monument to his successors Cleopatra and Mark Antony who ruled Egypt together for many years until they were defeated by Octavian.
Library of Alexandria
The people of Alexandria were famous for their great knowledge. Alexandria is the birthplace of the first library, built by Ptolemy I Soter in the 3rd century BC. The library had an estimated size of between 30,000 and 40,000 scrolls. The great Library of Alexandria contained the world’s largest collection of books and scrolls, and was a center of learning for many centuries. In ancient times, Alexandria was the Mecca of intellect and culture. There were more book lovers here than anywhere else in the ancient world. The first university in Egypt, the Al-Azhar University, is also located in Alexandria now.
Lighthouse of Alexandria
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria, was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 280–247 BC, it stood 30 stories tall and could be seen from the coast of Gaza in Israel.
In 1990, a Greek archaeologist named Manolis Korres led an effort to re-erect the Lighthouse, which had been destroyed by an earthquake centuries earlier.
Christianity in Alexandria
The city of Alexandria has a rich Christian heritage. It was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, which was one of the greatest centers of early Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In modern times, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to its glorious history. This ancient heritage is widely known to have been home to several major Christian figures including St. Mark the Evangelist (the patron saint of Alexandria), who founded the Coptic Orthodox Church, and St. John Chrysostom the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Alexandria declined after the Romans conquered Egypt in 30 B.C. Alexandria is still a large city today with nearly 4 million inhabitants and attracts many tourists each year. It has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Its main sights include the great Library of Alexandria, the Giza Pyramids, the Roman Theatre, the Catacombs, and many medieval Coptic churches.
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